I have prepared this short bibliographic essay for the inquisitive visitors who may like to know our sources. The list has been compiled with a view to providing an entry point to Galicia’s Greek Catholic Church in the last decades of the eighteenth and the first decades of the nineteenth century. It is quite impressionistic and by no means exhaustive, so please see it as a mere point of departure. Substantial lacunae cannot be avoided in such situations, but a diligent scholar will be able to fill them on the basis of bibliographies attached to the works suggested here.

Surprisingly, the most handy introduction to the history of the Greek Catholic Church in Austrian Galicia is Antoni Korczok’s PhD thesis defended in Wrocław at the beginning of the 1920s. Concise and clear, it sums up the main points made by scholars preceding him. An even more synthetic view with an emphasis on nation building is offered by John-Paul Himka, but the period with which we deal here is quite marginal to him, so do not miss Jan Kozik’s now classical monograph. It has much more to say about our early times and links them smoothly with the revolutionary 1848-1849.

Władysław Chotkowski and Iuliian Pelesh provide detailed accounts of how Austria transformed Galicia’s Greek Catholic Church after 1772. Those with a taste for overwhelming classics can reach also for the last two volumes of Alfred von Arneth’s Geschichte Maria Theresias (normally, I would call Pelesh’s contribution monumental, but when you are going to mention Arneth’s ten-volume Koloss in the next sentence, monumentality of pretty much everything else just fades away). If you feel you actually need to learn more about the Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church itself, beyond the eighteenth-century Austria you may consult (apart from Pelesh) the now classical studies by David Frick, Borys Gudziak, Oskar Halecki, and Iaroslav Isaievych, or more recent works of Andrzej Gil, Iuliia Shustova, and Ihor Skochylias. For the schooling of the early modern Ruthenian priests, see the work of Sophia Senyk.

If in turn you lack a firm foothold in the realities of the Austrian Monarchy, start with the indispensable contributions of Pieter Judson and Larry Wolff. Whether you will agree with them or not, their views on Austria and Galicia have become an inescapable point of reference in today’s scholarly debates. For a more traditional approach to Austrian history (read: more high politics), see Charles Ingrao and Steven Beller. If you happen to read Polish, an engaging, if strongly partisan, account of Galicia’s experience under Austria is offered by Walerian Kalinka, one of the smartest and most creative historians of his time.

The so-called Josephinism (many aspects of this phenomenon actually go back to the reign of Joseph II’s mother) had a decisive influence on Galicia’s Greek Catholic Church in the late eighteenth century. To learn more about it, you may return to Pelesh, Chotkowski and Arneth, but do not miss Derek Beales’s two-volume biography of Joseph II. Biography is not actually the right word to describe this work, it is more a study of Joseph’s time and reign with strong chapters on the peasant question and the conflict around the general seminaries, both topics extremely relevant for the Greek Catholic community. For Josephinism see also the works of Franz L. Fillafer, Hermann Zschokke, and Ernst Wangermann. Although Adam Wandruszka does not even notice the existence of the Greek Catholic Church in his biography of Joseph’s brother and successor, he does nevertheless describe in detail his protagonist’s church policies in Tuscany, which helps to understand the evolution of the Austrian government’s attitude in the 1790s.

Josephinism did not hang in a void, it formed part of a wider Catholic Enlightenment that interreacted with critics on both right and left. It is one of the main ambitions of this project to insert the Greek Catholics into this academic field. To get an idea what this is about consult the works of Richard Butterwick, Martyna Deszczyńska, Rainer Bendel, Norbert Spannenberger, Ulrich Lehner, Darrin McMahon, David Sorkin, and Thomas Wallnig.

Until 1772 Galicia’s territories belonged to Poland-Lithuania and after that date Polish-language culture retained its hegemonic position there. Of all the European countries beyond the Austrian rule, it is the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that needs to be taken into account most emphatically by anybody wishing to understand the church affairs of Galicia, be they Latin or Greek Catholic. The most useful introduction to the Greek Catholic affairs in Poland-Lithuania is still that of Ludomir Bieńkowski. Readers who want to learn more about this will reach for the studies by Edward Likowski, Dorota Wereda, and Larry Wolff. Although not focused specifically on the Greek Catholics, Maciej Loret’s contributions based on papal archives remain indispensable. The revolutionary diet of 1788-1792 did not overlook the ecclesiastic affairs: Latin Catholic, Greek Catholic, and even Orthodox. You may learn about it from the studies of Richard Butterwick, Walerian Kalinka, and Eugeniusz Sakowicz. St Petersburg had its own agenda regarding the Commonwealth’s Greek Catholics in the second half of the eighteenth century. Barbara Skinner makes a genuine effort to produce a balanced account of the resulting tensions between the Uniates and the Orthodox, but she relies heavily on the nineteenth-century Russian historians. In this project we do not study the Greek Catholic Basilian Order, but those curious about this group can check the research of Joanna Getka and Beata Lorens as well as an early article by John-Paul Himka.

As our focus here is on the first generation of Galicia’s Greek Catholic secular clergymen educated under the Austrian government, we follow in the footsteps of Amvrozii Androkhovych. His excellent works from the interwar period form the scaffolding without which our efforts would have to be completely different. Other older contributions still worth mentioning are those by Ludwiki Finkiel, Iakiv Holovatsʹkyi, Vasylʹ Shchurat, Feodosii Steblii, Kyrylo Studynsʹkyi and Mykhailo Vozniak. Among contemporary scholars Dorota Wereda’s study of Commonwealth’s Uniate episcopate as a group corresponds in many ways to Androkhovych’s research, whereas Vadym Adadurov’s meticulous reconstruction of Metropolitan Anhellovych’s political worldview remains so far the only twenty-first-century work directing the limelight on a figure from this environment.

The so-called Transylvanian School of the late eighteenth century is perhaps the closest counterpart to the activities of the Galician Ruthenian clergymen after 1772. Keith Hitchins’s monograph offers an accessible account of that phenomenon. Paschalis Kitromilides has produced another inspiring study of the Enlightenment transforming an Eastern Christian community. Yet another possible comparison is offered by Alexander Maxwell.

Lastly, it is always a good idea to check the suggestions provided by Paul R. Magocsi in his bibliographical survey.


Warsaw, 22 October 2020

Secondary literature

Vadym Adadurov, “«Virnopiddanyi sluha Ioho tsisarsʹkoi Velychnosti»: svit politychnykh pohliadiv vladyky Antoniia Anhelovycha,” in Vadym Adadurov & Volodymyr Sklokin, eds, Impersʹki identychnosti v ukrainsʹkii istorii XVIII-pershoi polovyny XIX st. (Lviv, 2020), 171-233

Amvrozii Androkhovych, “«Illiriisʹka» drukarnia i knyharnia Osypa Kurtsbeka 1779-1792 ta ii zv’iazky z uhorsʹkoiu i halytsʹkoiu zemleiu (Prychynok do istorii drukarstwa kyrylytseiu u Vidni),” Zapysky NTSh, Vol. 150 (1929), 109-120.

―, “Lvivsʹke Studium ruthenum,” Zapysky NTSh, Vol. 131 (1921), 123-195

―, “Lvivsʹke Studium ruthenium,” Zapysky NTSh, Vol. 132 (1922), 185-217.

―, “Lvivsʹke Studium ruthenum,” Zapysky NTSh, Vol. 136-137 (1925), 43-105.

―, “Lvivsʹke Studium ruthenum,” Zapysky NTSh, Vol. 146 (1927), 33-118.

―, “Lvivsʹke Studium ruthenum,” Zapysky NTSh, Vol. 150 (1929), 1-80.

―, “Otetsʹ Ivan Horbachevsʹkyi, prymirnyi parokh Stavropihiisʹkoho bratstva (1743-1806),” Zbirnyk Lvivsʹkoi Stavropihii, Vol. 1 (1921), 55-98

―, “Vidensʹke Barbareum. Istoriia korolivsʹkoi Generalʹnoi hreko-katolytsʹkoi Semynarii pry tserkvi sv. Varvary u Vidni z pershoho periodu ii isnuvannia (1775-1784),” in Iosyf Slipyi, ed., Pratsi Hreko-Katolytsʹkoi Bohoslovsʹkoi Akademii u Lʹvovi. T. I-II (Lviv, 1935), 42-113.

Alfred von Arneth, Maria Theresia’s letzte Regierungszeit. Dritter Band (Vien 1879)

―, Maria Theresia’s letzte Regierungszeit. Vierter Band (Vien 1879)

Alfredas Bamblauskas, Salvijus Kulevičius & Ihor Skochylias, eds, Na perekhresti kulʹtur: monastyr i khram Presviatoi Triitsi u Vilʹniusi (Vilnius, 2017)

Derek Beales, Joseph II: I. In the Shadow of Maria Theresa (Cambridge, 1987)

―, Joseph II: II. Against the World, 1780-1790 (Cambridge, 2009)

Steven Beller, The Habsburg Monarchy 1815-1918 (Cambridge, 2018)

Rainer Bendel & Norbert Spannenberger, eds, Katholische Aufklärung und Josephinismus: Rezeptionsformen in Ostmittel- und Südosteuropa (Cologne, 2015)

Ludomir Bieńkowski, “Organizacja Kościoła Wschodniego w Polsce,” in Jerzy Kłoczowski, ed., Kościół w Polsce. II: Wieki XVI–XVIII (Cracow, 1969), 781-1049

Richard Butterwick, “Między oświeceniem a katolicyzmem, czyli o katolickim oświeceniu i oświeconym katolicyzmie,” Wiek Oświecenia, Vol. 30 (2014), 11–53

―, The Polish Revolution and the Catholic Church, 1788-1792: A Political History (Oxford, 2011)

Władysław Chotkowski, Historya polityczna Kościoła w Galicyi za rządów Maryi Teresy (Cracow, 1909), two volumes

Martyna Deszczyńska, Polskie kontroświecenie (Warsaw, 2011)

Franz L. Fillafer, Aufklärung habsburgisch: Staatsbildung, Wissenskultur und Geschichtspolitik in Zentraleuropa, 1750–1850 (Göttingen, 2020)

Ludwik Finkel, Historya Uniwersytetu Lwowskiego (Lviv, 1894)

David Frick, Kith, Kin, and Neighbors: Communities and Confessions in Seventeenth- century Wilno (Ithaca, 2013)

―, Meletij Smotrycʹkyj (Cambridge, MA, 1995)

Joanna Getka, U progu modernizacji: ruskojęzyczne drukarstwo bazyliańskie XVIII wieku (Warsaw, 2017)

Andrzej Gil & Ihor Skoczylas, Kościoły wschodnie w państwie polsko-litewskim w procesie przemian i adaptacji: metropolia kijowska w latach 1458-1795 (Lublin, 2014)

Borys A. Gudziak, Crisis and Reform: The Kyivan Metropolitanate, the Patriarchate of Constantinople, and the Genesis of the Union of Brest (Cambridge, MA, 2001)

Oskar Halecki, From Florence to Brest (1439-1596) (Rome, 1958)

John-Paul Himka, “The Conflict between the Secular and the Religious Clergy in Eighteenth-Century Western Ukraine,” Harvard Ukrainian Studies, Vol. 15 (1991), Issue 1/2, 35-47

―, “The Greek Catholic Church and Nation-Building in Galicia, 1772-1918,” Harvard Ukrainian Studies, Vol. 8 (1984), Issue 3/4, 426-452

Keith Hitchins, The Rumanian National Movement in Transylvania, 1780-1849 (Cambridge, MA, 1969)

Iakiv Holovatsʹkyi, O pervom literaturno-umstvennom dvizhenii Rusinov v Galitsii so vremen avstriiskogo vladeniia v toi zemle (Lviv, 1865)

Charles Ingrao, The Habsburg Monarchy 1618–1815 (Cambridge, 2019)

Iaroslav Isaievych, Voluntary Brotherhood: Confraternities of Laymen in Early Modern Ukraine (Edmonton, 2006)

Pieter Judson, The Habsburg Empire: A New History (Cambridge, MA, 2016)

Walerian Kalinka, Galicya i Kraków pod panowaniem austryackiém (Cracow, 1898)

―, Sejm czteroletni (Warsaw, 1991), two volumes

Paschalis Kitromilides, Enlightenment and Revolution: The Making of Modern Greece (Cambridge, MA, 2013)

Antoni Korczok, Die griechisch-katholische Kirche in Galizien (Leipzig, 1921)

Jan Kozik, The Ukrainian National Movement in Galicia, 1815-1849 (Edmonton, 2009)

Ulrich Lehner, The Catholic Enlightenment: The Forgotten History of a Global Movement (Oxford, 2016)

Edward Likowski, Dzieje Kościoła unickiego na Litwie i Rusi w XVIII i XIX wieku: uważane głównie ze względu na przyczyny jego upadku. Cz. 1 (Warsaw, 1906)

Beata Lorens, Bazylianie prowincji koronnej w latach 1743-1780 (Rzeszów, 2014)

Maciej Loret, Kościół katolicki a Katarzyna II: 1772-1784 (Cracow, 1910)

―, Życie polskie w Rzymie w XVIII wieku (Rome, 1930)

Paul R. Magocsi, Galicia: A Historical Survey and Bibliographic Guide (Toronto, 1983)

Alexander Maxwell, Choosing Slovakia: Slavic Hungary, the Czechoslovak Language and Accidental Nationalism (London, 2009)

Darrin McMahon, Enemies of the Enlightenment: The French Counter-Enlightenment and the Making of Modernity (Oxford, 2002)

Iuliian Pelesh, Geschichte der Union der ruthenischen Kirche mit Rom von den ältesten Zeiten bis auf die Gegenwart. Bd. 1, Von den ältesten Zeiten bis zur Wiederstellung der Union der ruthenischen Kirche mit Rom (1595) (Vienna, 1878)

―, Geschichte der Union der ruthenischen Kirche mit Rom von den ältesten Zeiten bis auf die Gegenwart. Bd. 2, Von der Wiederstellung der Union mit Rom bis auf die Gegenwart (1598-1879) (Vienna, 1880)

Eugeniusz Sakowicz, Kościół prawosławny w Polsce w epoce Sejmu Wielkiego 1788-1792 (Warsaw, 1935)

Sophia Senyk, “The education of the secular clergy in the Ruthenian Church before the nineteenth century,” Orientalia Periodica Christiana, Vol. 53 (1987), Issue 2, 387-416

Vasylʹ Shchurat, Na dosvitku novoi doby: statti i zamitky do istorii vidrodzhennia Hal. Ukrainy (Lviv, 1919)

Iuliia E. Shustova, Dokumenty lʹvovoskogo uspenskogo stavropigiiskogo bratstva (1586-1788): Istochnikovedecheskoe issledovanie (Moscow, 2009)

Barbara Skinner, The Western Front of the Eastern Church: Uniate and Orthodox Conflict in Eighteenth-century Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia (DeKalb, 2009)

David Sorkin, The Religious Enlightenment: Protestants, Jews, and Catholics from London to Vienna (Princeton, 2008)

Feodosii Steblii, Predtecha “Rusʹkoi Triitsi”: Peremyshlʹsʹkyi kulʹturno-osvitnyi oseredok pershoi polovyny XIX st. (Lviv, 2003)

Kyrylo Studynsʹkyi, Lvivsʹka dukhovna seminariia v chasakh Markiiana Shashkevycha (1829-1843) (Lviv, 1916)

Mykhailo Vozniak, Prosvitni zmahania halyts′kykh Ukraintsiv v 19 vitsi (do 1850 r.) (Lviv, 1912)

Adam Wandruszka, Leopold II : Erzherzog von Österreich, Grossherzog von Toskana, König von Ungarn und Böhmen, Römischer Kaiser. Bd. 2, 1780-1792 (Vienna, 1965)

Thomas Wallnig, Critical Monks: The German Benedictines, 1680-1740 (Leiden, 2019)

Ernst Wangermann, Aufklärung und staatsbürgerliche Erziehung: Gottfried van Swieten als Reformator des österreichischen Unterrichtswesens 1781 – 1791 (Munich, 1978)

―, From Joseph II to the Jacobin Trials: Government Policy and Public Opinion in the Habsburg Dominions in the Period of the French Revolution (London, 1959)

Dorota Wereda, Biskupi unickiej metropolii kijowskiej w XVIII wieku (Siedlce, 2011)

Larry Wolff, Disunion within the Union: The Uniate Church and the Partitions of Poland (Cambridge, MA, 2020)

―, The Idea of Galicia: History and Fantasy in Habsburg Political Culture (Stanford, 2010)

Hermann Zschokke, Die theologische Studien und Anstalten der Katholischen Kirchen in Österreich: Aus Archivalien (Vienna, 1894)

Printed primary sources

Vadym Adadurov, ed., Fundatsiia Halytsʹkoi Mytropolii u svitli dyplomatychnoho lystuvannia Avstrii ta Sviatoho Prestolu 1807-1808 rokiv: zbirnyk dokumentiv (Lviv, 2011)

―, ed., Podil Kyivsʹkoi ta pidnesennia Halytsʹkoi uniinykh metropolii: Dokumenty ta materiialy vatykansʹkykh arkhiviv (1802-1808 roky). Uporiadkuvannia, vstup i komentari Vadyma Adadurova (Lviv, 2019)

[Antonii Anhellovych], Kto jest stroną zaczepiającą Austrya czy Francya (No place given but certainly Lviv, 1805)

―, List pasterski do duchowieństwa i ludów dycezyów przemyskiey, samborskiey, sanockiey, lwowskiey, halickiey i kamienieckiey, tudzież chałmskiey, bełskiey i brzeskiey (Lviv, 1805)

―, Uwagi patryoty austryackiego nad niektóremi artykułami gazet zagranicznych (No place given but certainly Lviv, 1809)

Ioannykii Bazylovych, Brevis notitia fundationis Theodori Koriatovits (Košice, 1799-1805)

Teodozy Brodowicz, Widok przemocy na słabą niewinność srogo wywartej (Lviv, 1861-1862), two volumes

Dziennik patriotycznych polityków, published in Lviv from Autumn 1792 till Spring 1798

Johann Christian von Engel, Geschichte der Ukraine und der ukrainischen Cosaken, wie auch der Königreich Halitsch und Wladimir (Halle, 1796)

Ivan Franko, ed., Materiialy do kulʹturnoi istorii Halytsʹkoi Rusy XVIII i XIX viku (Lviv, 1902)

Mykhailo Harasevych, Annales Ecclesiæ Ruthenæ (Lviv, 1862)

[Iakiv Holovatsʹkyi], Zustände der Russinen in Gallizien: Ein Wort zur Zeit (Leipzig, 1846)

Mykhailo Malynovsʹkyi, ed., Die Kirchen- und Staats-Satzungen bezüglich des griechisch-katholischen Ritus der Ruthenen in Galizien (Lviv, 1861)

Adam Naruszewicz, Dyaryusz podróży Nayiaśnieyszego Stanisława Augusta króla polskiego na Ukrainę (Warsaw, 1787)

Przemysław Nowakowski CM, ed., Statuty synodu zamojskiego 1720 roku: Nowe tłumaczenie z komentarzami (Cracow, 2020)

[Franz Stephan Rautenstrauch], Entwurf zur Einrichtung der Generalseminarien in den k. k. Erblanden (Vienna, 1784)

―, Institutum Facultatis Theologicae Vindobonensis (Vienna, 1778)

Regii Seminarii Græco-Catholici Viennæ ad Sanctam Barbaram recens fundati leges, atque institutions (No place and time but almost certainly printed in Vienna in 1779 or 1780)

Kyrylo Studynsʹkyi, Korespondetsiia Iakova Holovatsʹkoho v litakh 1835-1849 (Lviv, 1909)

Mykola Ustyianovych, Sleza na hrobi Ieho Vysokoprepodobiia i Vsechestnyishaho Hospodyna Mikhaila Barona ot Neustern Harasevycha (Lviv, 1836)

Useful links

2020 Petryshyn Lecture: Larry Wolff on Disunion within the Union

Ihor Skochylias’s 2020 Lecture on the Synod of Zamość

MAPA: Digital Atlas of Ukraine (HURI)

Atlas Fontium (IHPAN)

Kyivan Christianity (UCU)

NCN-funded research project on easements in Galicia

Lviv Centre for Urban History

Lviv National Museum

“Synod of Zamość” Project at UPJP2 of Cracow

Prisma Ukraïna – Research Network Eastern Europe

Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies (University of Alberta)

Ukrainian Institute in London

Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute

Ukrainian Research in Switzerland

Centre for Austrian Studies (University of Minnesota)

Cambridge Habsburg Studies Network

Die Habsburgermonarchie (ÖAW IHB)

Vienna History Wiki

Institut für die Wissenschaften vom Menschen in Vienna

Lichtenberg-Kolleg – The Göttingen Institute for Advanced Study

Das Leibniz-Institut für Europäische Geschichte in Mainz

Polish Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies

Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für die Erforschung der Europäischen Aufklärung (Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg)

Austrian National Library

The National Library of Poland

Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine

Vasyl Stefanyk National Scientific Library of Ukraine

Ossolineum Institute

Women’s Archive (Instytut Badań Literackich PAN)

Polona Digital Library

Izbornyk Digital Collection

Chtyvo Digital Library

Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church

St. George’s Cathedral in Lviv

Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in Canada

Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in the US

Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in Poland (Przemyśl-Warsaw)

Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in Poland (Gdańsk-Wrocław)

Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in France

Ukrainian Greek Catholic Parish in Rome

Ukrainian Greek Catholic Parish in Vienna

Priestly Society of Saint Josaphat Kuntsevych (Catholic Traditionalists)

“Historians in Ukraine” Collective

“Likbez – Historical Front of Ukraine” Collective

Kompromitacje by Ebenezer Rojt

Journal Ukraina Moderna

Krytyka: Thinking Ukraine