Essential readings

I have prepared this short bibliographic essay for the inquisitive visitors who may like to know our sources. The list has been compiled with a view to providing an entry point to Galicia’s Greek Catholic Church in the last decades of the eighteenth and the first decades of the nineteenth century. It is quite impressionistic and by no means exhaustive, so please see it as a mere point of departure. Substantial lacunae cannot be avoided in such situations, but a diligent scholar will be able to fill them on the basis of bibliographies attached to the works suggested here.

Surprisingly, the most handy introduction to the history of the Greek Catholic Church in Austrian Galicia is Antoni Korczok’s PhD thesis defended in Wrocław at the beginning of the 1920s. Concise and clear, it sums up the main points made by scholars preceding him. An even more synthetic view with an emphasis on nation building is offered by John-Paul Himka, but the period with which we deal here is quite marginal to him, so do not miss Jan Kozik’s now classical monograph. It has much more to say about our early times and links them smoothly with the revolutionary 1848-1849.

Władysław Chotkowski and Iuliian Pelesh provide detailed accounts of how Austria transformed Galicia’s Greek Catholic Church after 1772. Those with a taste for overwhelming classics and broad context can reach also for the last volumes of Ludwig von Pastor’s The History of the Popes and Alfred von Arneth’s Geschichte Maria Theresias (normally, I would call Pelesh’s contribution monumental, but when you are going to mention Arneth’s and Pastor’s Kolosse in the next sentence, monumentality of pretty much everything else just fades away). If you feel you actually need to learn more about the Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church itself beyond the eighteenth-century Austria, you may consult (apart from Pelesh) the now classical studies by David Frick, Borys Gudziak, Oskar Halecki, and Iaroslav Isaievych, or more recent works of Andrzej Gil, Iuliia Shustova, and Ihor Skochylias. For the schooling of the early modern Ruthenian priests, see the work of Sophia Senyk. In 2022, Anatolii Babynskyi , a lecturer at the Ukrainian Catholic University, published a very short English-language overview of the Greek Catholic Church, but I have not been able to consult it yet.

If in turn you lack a firm foothold in the realities of the Austrian Monarchy, start with the indispensable contributions of Pieter Judson and Larry Wolff. Whether you will agree with them or not, their views on Austria and Galicia have become an inescapable point of reference in today’s scholarly debates. For a more traditional approach to Austrian history (read: more high politics), see Charles Ingrao and Steven Beller. If you happen to read Polish, an engaging, if strongly partisan, account of Galicia’s experience under Austria is offered by Walerian Kalinka, one of the smartest and most creative historians of his time.

The so-called Josephinism (many aspects of this phenomenon actually go back to the reign of Joseph II’s mother) had a decisive influence on Galicia’s Greek Catholic Church in the late eighteenth century. Scholarly literature on this topic is extensive and diverse: for several generations the two most influential scholars in this field were Fritz Valjavec and Eduard Winter, but I believe that nowadays it is more practical to start elsewhere. There are five must-reads indispensable to understand the Austrian Monarchy in this period: Barbara Stollberg-Rilinger’s biography of Maria Theresa, Franz A. J. Szabo’s work on Prince Kaunitz, Derek Beales’s two-volume biography of Joseph II, Adam Wandruszka’s comparably long biography of Leopold II, and Ernst Wangermann’s monograph of the so-called Austrian Jacobins. You might also add to this, Ernst Popp’s recent PhD thesis on the Geistliche Hofkommission. These works will give you a firm basis, which you can develop afterwards with the help of Franz L. Fillafer, Peter Hersche, Grete Klingenstein, Elisabeth Kovács, Michael Printy, Thomas Wallnig, Hermann Zschokke.

Josephinism did not hang in a void, it formed part of a wider Catholic Enlightenment that interacted with critics on both right and left. It is one of the main ambitions of this project to insert the Greek Catholics into this academic field. To get an idea what this is about consult the works of Richard Butterwick, Martyna Deszczyńska, Rainer Bendel, Norbert Spannenberger, Ulrich Lehner, Darrin McMahon, David Sorkin, and Thomas Wallnig.

Until 1772 Galicia’s territories belonged to Poland-Lithuania and after that date Polish-language culture retained its hegemonic position there. Of all the European countries beyond the Austrian rule it is the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that needs to be taken into account most emphatically by anybody wishing to understand the church affairs of Galicia, be they Latin or Greek Catholic. The most useful concise introduction to the Greek Catholic affairs in Poland-Lithuania is still that of Ludomir Bieńkowski. Readers who want to learn more about this will reach for Ihor Skochylias’s magisterial monograph of the Lviv eparchy and the above mentioned synthesis he prepared together with Andrzej Gil. Other important authors are Edward Likowski, Dorota Wereda, and Larry Wolff. Although not focused specifically on the Greek Catholics, Maciej Loret’s contributions based on papal archives remain indispensable. The revolutionary diet of 1788-1792 did not overlook the ecclesiastic affairs: Latin Catholic, Greek Catholic, and even Orthodox. You may learn about it from the studies of Richard Butterwick, Walerian Kalinka, and Eugeniusz Sakowicz. St Petersburg had its own agenda regarding the Commonwealth’s Greek Catholics in the second half of the eighteenth century. Barbara Skinner makes a genuine effort to produce a balanced account of the resulting tensions between the Uniates and the Orthodox, but she relies heavily on the nineteenth-century Russian historians. In this project we do not study the Greek Catholic Basilian Order, but those curious about this group can check the research of Joanna Getka and Beata Lorens as well as an early article by John-Paul Himka.

As our focus here is on the first generation of Galicia’s Greek Catholic secular clergymen educated under the Austrian government, we follow in the footsteps of Amvrozii Androkhovych. His excellent works from the interwar period form the scaffolding without which our efforts would have to be completely different. Other older contributions still worth mentioning are those by Ludwiki Finkiel, Iakiv Holovatsʹkyi, Vasylʹ Shchurat, Feodosii Steblii, Kyrylo Studynsʹkyi and Mykhailo Vozniak. Among contemporary scholars Dorota Wereda’s and Dzianis Liseichykau’s studies of the Commonwealth’s Uniate clergy as a social phenomenon correspond in many ways to Androkhovych’s research, whereas Vadym Adadurov’s meticulous reconstruction of Metropolitan Anhellovych’s political worldview remains so far the only twenty-first-century work directing the limelight on a figure from this environment.

The so-called Transylvanian School of the late eighteenth century is perhaps the closest counterpart to the activities of the Galician Ruthenian clergymen after 1772. Keith Hitchins’s monograph offers an accessible account of that phenomenon, but one must not overlook the fresh work of Radu Nedici. Paschalis Kitromilides has produced an inspiring study of the Enlightenment transforming an Eastern Christian community. Alexander Maxwell provides another suggestive comparison.

Lastly, it is always a good idea to check the suggestions provided by Paul R. Magocsi in his bibliographical survey.


Warsaw, August 2022

Secondary literature

Vadym Adadurov, “«Virnopiddanyi sluha Ioho tsisarsʹkoi Velychnosti»: svit politychnykh pohliadiv vladyky Antoniia Anhelovycha,” in Vadym Adadurov & Volodymyr Sklokin, eds, Impersʹki identychnosti v ukrainsʹkii istorii XVIII-pershoi polovyny XIX st. (Lviv, 2020), 171-233

Amvrozii Androkhovych, “«Illiriisʹka» drukarnia i knyharnia Osypa Kurtsbeka 1779-1792 ta ii zv’iazky z uhorsʹkoiu i halytsʹkoiu zemleiu (Prychynok do istorii drukarstwa kyrylytseiu u Vidni),” Zapysky NTSh, Vol. 150 (1929), 109-120.

―, “Lvivsʹke Studium ruthenum,” Zapysky NTSh, Vol. 131 (1921), 123-195

―, “Lvivsʹke Studium ruthenium,” Zapysky NTSh, Vol. 132 (1922), 185-217.

―, “Lvivsʹke Studium ruthenum,” Zapysky NTSh, Vol. 136-137 (1925), 43-105.

―, “Lvivsʹke Studium ruthenum,” Zapysky NTSh, Vol. 146 (1927), 33-118.

―, “Lvivsʹke Studium ruthenum,” Zapysky NTSh, Vol. 150 (1929), 1-80.

―, “Otetsʹ Ivan Horbachevsʹkyi, prymirnyi parokh Stavropihiisʹkoho bratstva (1743-1806),” Zbirnyk Lvivsʹkoi Stavropihii, Vol. 1 (1921), 55-98

―, “Vidensʹke Barbareum. Istoriia korolivsʹkoi Generalʹnoi hreko-katolytsʹkoi Semynarii pry tserkvi sv. Varvary u Vidni z pershoho periodu ii isnuvannia (1775-1784),” in Iosyf Slipyi, ed., Pratsi Hreko-Katolytsʹkoi Bohoslovsʹkoi Akademii u Lʹvovi. T. I-II (Lviv, 1935), 42-113.

Alfred von Arneth, Maria Theresia’s letzte Regierungszeit. Dritter Band (Vien 1879)

―, Maria Theresia’s letzte Regierungszeit. Vierter Band (Vien 1879)

Anatolii Babynskyi, The Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church: A Short History (Lviv, 2022)

Alfredas Bamblauskas, Salvijus Kulevičius & Ihor Skochylias, eds, Na perekhresti kulʹtur: monastyr i khram Presviatoi Triitsi u Vilʹniusi (Vilnius, 2017)

Derek Beales, Joseph II: I. In the Shadow of Maria Theresa (Cambridge, 1987)

―, Joseph II: II. Against the World, 1780-1790 (Cambridge, 2009)

Steven Beller, The Habsburg Monarchy 1815-1918 (Cambridge, 2018)

Rainer Bendel & Norbert Spannenberger, eds, Katholische Aufklärung und Josephinismus: Rezeptionsformen in Ostmittel- und Südosteuropa (Cologne, 2015)

Ludomir Bieńkowski, “Organizacja Kościoła Wschodniego w Polsce,” in Jerzy Kłoczowski, ed., Kościół w Polsce. II: Wieki XVI–XVIII (Cracow, 1969), 781-1049

Richard Butterwick, “Między oświeceniem a katolicyzmem, czyli o katolickim oświeceniu i oświeconym katolicyzmie,” Wiek Oświecenia, Vol. 30 (2014), 11–53

―, The Polish Revolution and the Catholic Church, 1788-1792: A Political History (Oxford, 2011)

Władysław Chotkowski, Historya polityczna Kościoła w Galicyi za rządów Maryi Teresy (Cracow, 1909), two volumes

Martyna Deszczyńska, Polskie kontroświecenie (Warsaw, 2011)

Franz L. Fillafer, Aufklärung habsburgisch: Staatsbildung, Wissenskultur und Geschichtspolitik in Zentraleuropa, 1750–1850 (Göttingen, 2020)

Franz L. Fillafer & Thomas Wallnig, Josephinismus zwischen den Regimen: Eduard Winter, Fritz Valjavec und die zentraleuropäischen Historiographien im 20. Jahrhundert (Göttingen, 2016)

Ludwik Finkel, Historya Uniwersytetu Lwowskiego (Lviv, 1894)

David Frick, Kith, Kin, and Neighbors: Communities and Confessions in Seventeenth- century Wilno (Ithaca, 2013)

―, Meletij Smotrycʹkyj (Cambridge, MA, 1995)

Joanna Getka, U progu modernizacji: ruskojęzyczne drukarstwo bazyliańskie XVIII wieku (Warsaw, 2017)

Andrzej Gil & Ihor Skoczylas, Kościoły wschodnie w państwie polsko-litewskim w procesie przemian i adaptacji: metropolia kijowska w latach 1458-1795 (Lublin, 2014)

Borys A. Gudziak, Crisis and Reform: The Kyivan Metropolitanate, the Patriarchate of Constantinople, and the Genesis of the Union of Brest (Cambridge, MA, 2001)

Oskar Halecki, From Florence to Brest (1439-1596) (Rome, 1958)

Peter Hersche, Der Spätjansenismus in Österreich (Vienna, 1977)

John-Paul Himka, “The Conflict between the Secular and the Religious Clergy in Eighteenth-Century Western Ukraine,” Harvard Ukrainian Studies, Vol. 15 (1991), Issue 1/2, 35-47

―, “The Greek Catholic Church and Nation-Building in Galicia, 1772-1918,” Harvard Ukrainian Studies, Vol. 8 (1984), Issue 3/4, 426-452

Keith Hitchins, The Rumanian National Movement in Transylvania, 1780-1849 (Cambridge, MA, 1969)

Iakiv Holovatsʹkyi, O pervom literaturno-umstvennom dvizhenii Rusinov v Galitsii so vremen avstriiskogo vladeniia v toi zemle (Lviv, 1865)

Charles Ingrao, The Habsburg Monarchy 1618–1815 (Cambridge, 2019)

Iaroslav Isaievych, Voluntary Brotherhood: Confraternities of Laymen in Early Modern Ukraine (Edmonton, 2006)

Pieter Judson, The Habsburg Empire: A New History (Cambridge, MA, 2016)

Walerian Kalinka, Galicya i Kraków pod panowaniem austryackiém (Cracow, 1898)

―, Sejm czteroletni (Warsaw, 1991), two volumes

Grete Klingenstein, Staatsverwaltung und kirchliche Autorität im 18. Jahrhundert : das Problem der Zensur in der theresianischen Reform (Vienna, 1970)

Paschalis Kitromilides, Enlightenment and Revolution: The Making of Modern Greece (Cambridge, MA, 2013)

Antoni Korczok, Die griechisch-katholische Kirche in Galizien (Leipzig, 1921)

Elisabeth Kovács, Ultramontanismus und Staatskirchentum im theresianisch-josephinischen Staat (Vienna, 1975)

Jan Kozik, The Ukrainian National Movement in Galicia, 1815-1849 (Edmonton, 2009)

Ulrich Lehner, The Catholic Enlightenment: The Forgotten History of a Global Movement (Oxford, 2016)

Edward Likowski, Dzieje Kościoła unickiego na Litwie i Rusi w XVIII i XIX wieku: uważane głównie ze względu na przyczyny jego upadku. Cz. 1 (Warsaw, 1906)

Dzianis Liseichykau, Shtodzennae zhytstse uniiatskaha parafiialʹnaha sviatara belaruska-litouskikh ziamelʹ 1720-1839 hh. (Minsk, 2011)

―, Sviatar u belaruskim sotsyume: Prasapahrafiia uniiatskaha dukhavenstva 1596-1839 hh. (Minsk, 2015)

Beata Lorens, Bazylianie prowincji koronnej w latach 1743-1780 (Rzeszów, 2014)

Maciej Loret, Kościół katolicki a Katarzyna II: 1772-1784 (Cracow, 1910)

―, Życie polskie w Rzymie w XVIII wieku (Rome, 1930)

Paul R. Magocsi, Galicia: A Historical Survey and Bibliographic Guide (Toronto, 1983)

Alexander Maxwell, Choosing Slovakia: Slavic Hungary, the Czechoslovak Language and Accidental Nationalism (London, 2009)

Darrin McMahon, Enemies of the Enlightenment: The French Counter-Enlightenment and the Making of Modernity (Oxford, 2002)

Radu Nedici, Formarea identității confesionale greco-catolice în Transilvania veacului al XVIII-lea. Biserică și comunitate (Bucharest, 2013)

Ludwig von Pastor, The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages: Drawn from the Secret Archives of the Vatican and Other Original Sources (London, 1891), volumes XXXV-XL

Iuliian Pelesh, Geschichte der Union der ruthenischen Kirche mit Rom von den ältesten Zeiten bis auf die Gegenwart. Bd. 1, Von den ältesten Zeiten bis zur Wiederstellung der Union der ruthenischen Kirche mit Rom (1595) (Vienna, 1878)

―, Geschichte der Union der ruthenischen Kirche mit Rom von den ältesten Zeiten bis auf die Gegenwart. Bd. 2, Von der Wiederstellung der Union mit Rom bis auf die Gegenwart (1598-1879) (Vienna, 1880)

Ernst Popp, Dissertation „Zum Besten von Staat und Religion“: Das Wirken der Geistlichen Hofkommission unter Joseph II.eminare. Kirche und Aufklärung” (Vienna, 2020)

Michael Printy, Enlightenment and the Creation of German Catholicism (Cambridge, 2009)

Eugeniusz Sakowicz, Kościół prawosławny w Polsce w epoce Sejmu Wielkiego 1788-1792 (Warsaw, 1935)

Sophia Senyk, “The education of the secular clergy in the Ruthenian Church before the nineteenth century,” Orientalia Periodica Christiana, Vol. 53 (1987), Issue 2, 387-416

Vasylʹ Shchurat, Na dosvitku novoi doby: statti i zamitky do istorii vidrodzhennia Hal. Ukrainy (Lviv, 1919)

Iuliia E. Shustova, Dokumenty lʹvovoskogo uspenskogo stavropigiiskogo bratstva (1586-1788): Istochnikovedecheskoe issledovanie (Moscow, 2009)

Barbara Skinner, The Western Front of the Eastern Church: Uniate and Orthodox Conflict in Eighteenth-century Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia (DeKalb, 2009)

Ihor Skochylias, Halytsʹka (Lvivsʹka) eparkhiia: XII-XVIII st.: orhanizatsiina struktura ta pravovyj status (Lviv, 2010)

David Sorkin, The Religious Enlightenment: Protestants, Jews, and Catholics from London to Vienna (Princeton, 2008)

Feodosii Steblii, Predtecha “Rusʹkoi Triitsi”: Peremyshlʹsʹkyi kulʹturno-osvitnyi oseredok pershoi polovyny XIX st. (Lviv, 2003)

Barbara Stollberg-Rilinger, Maria Theresa: The Habsburg Empress in Her Time (Princeton, 2021)

Kyrylo Studynsʹkyi, Lvivsʹka dukhovna seminariia v chasakh Markiiana Shashkevycha (1829-1843) (Lviv, 1916)

Franz A. J. Szabo, Kaunitz and Enlightened Absolutism 1753–1780 (Cambridge, 1994)

Fritz Valjavec, Der Josephinismus: zur geistigen Entwicklung Österreichs im 18. u. 19. Jahrhundert (Brünn, 1944)

Mykhailo Vozniak, Prosvitni zmahania halyts′kykh Ukraintsiv v 19 vitsi (do 1850 r.) (Lviv, 1912)

Adam Wandruszka, Leopold II: Erzherzog von Österreich, Großherzog von Toskana, König von Ungarn und Böhmen, Römischer Kaiser. Bd. 1, 1747 – 1780 (Vienna, 1963)

―, Leopold II: Erzherzog von Österreich, Grossherzog von Toskana, König von Ungarn und Böhmen, Römischer Kaiser. Bd. 2, 1780-1792 (Vienna, 1965)

Thomas Wallnig, Critical Monks: The German Benedictines, 1680-1740 (Leiden, 2019)

Ernst Wangermann, Aufklärung und staatsbürgerliche Erziehung: Gottfried van Swieten als Reformator des österreichischen Unterrichtswesens 1781 – 1791 (Munich, 1978)

―, From Joseph II to the Jacobin Trials: Government Policy and Public Opinion in the Habsburg Dominions in the Period of the French Revolution (London, 1969)

Dorota Wereda, Biskupi unickiej metropolii kijowskiej w XVIII wieku (Siedlce, 2011)

Eduard Winter, Der Josefinismus und seine Geschichte: Beiträge zur Geistesgeschichte Österreichs 1740-1848 (Brünn, 1943)

Larry Wolff, Disunion within the Union: The Uniate Church and the Partitions of Poland (Cambridge, MA, 2020)

―, The Idea of Galicia: History and Fantasy in Habsburg Political Culture (Stanford, 2010)

Hermann Zschokke, Die theologische Studien und Anstalten der Katholischen Kirchen in Österreich: Aus Archivalien (Vienna, 1894)

Printed primary sources

Vadym Adadurov, ed., Fundatsiia Halytsʹkoi Mytropolii u svitli dyplomatychnoho lystuvannia Avstrii ta Sviatoho Prestolu 1807-1808 rokiv: zbirnyk dokumentiv (Lviv, 2011)

―, ed., Podil Kyivsʹkoi ta pidnesennia Halytsʹkoi uniinykh metropolii: Dokumenty ta materiialy vatykansʹkykh arkhiviv (1802-1808 roky). Uporiadkuvannia, vstup i komentari Vadyma Adadurova (Lviv, 2019)

[Antonii Anhellovych], Kto jest stroną zaczepiającą Austrya czy Francya (No place given but certainly Lviv, 1805)

―, List pasterski do duchowieństwa i ludów dycezyów przemyskiey, samborskiey, sanockiey, lwowskiey, halickiey i kamienieckiey, tudzież chałmskiey, bełskiey i brzeskiey (Lviv, 1805)

―, Uwagi patryoty austryackiego nad niektóremi artykułami gazet zagranicznych (No place given but certainly Lviv, 1809)

Ioannykii Bazylovych, Brevis notitia fundationis Theodori Koriatovits (Košice, 1799-1805)

Teodozy Brodowicz, Widok przemocy na słabą niewinność srogo wywartej (Lviv, 1861-1862), two volumes

Dziennik patriotycznych polityków, published in Lviv from Autumn 1792 till Spring 1798

Johann Christian von Engel, Geschichte der Ukraine und der ukrainischen Cosaken, wie auch der Königreich Halitsch und Wladimir (Halle, 1796)

Ivan Franko, ed., Materiialy do kulʹturnoi istorii Halytsʹkoi Rusy XVIII i XIX viku (Lviv, 1902)

Mykhailo Harasevych, Annales Ecclesiæ Ruthenæ (Lviv, 1862)

[Iakiv Holovatsʹkyi], Zustände der Russinen in Gallizien: Ein Wort zur Zeit (Leipzig, 1846)

Ferdinand Maaß, ed., Der Josephinismus. Quellen zu seiner Geschichte in Österreich 1760-1790 (Vienna, 1951-1961), five volumes

Mykhailo Malynovsʹkyi, ed., Die Kirchen- und Staats-Satzungen bezüglich des griechisch-katholischen Ritus der Ruthenen in Galizien (Lviv, 1861)

Adam Naruszewicz, Dyaryusz podróży Nayiaśnieyszego Stanisława Augusta króla polskiego na Ukrainę (Warsaw, 1787)

Przemysław Nowakowski CM, ed., Statuty synodu zamojskiego 1720 roku: Nowe tłumaczenie z komentarzami (Cracow, 2020)

[Franz Stephan Rautenstrauch], Entwurf zur Einrichtung der Generalseminarien in den k. k. Erblanden (Vienna, 1784)

―, Entwurf zur Einrichtung der theologischen Schulen, in den k.k. Erblanden (Vienna, 1784)

―, Institutum Facultatis Theologicae Vindobonensis (Vienna, 1778)

Regii Seminarii Græco-Catholici Viennæ ad Sanctam Barbaram recens fundati leges, atque institutions (No place and time but almost certainly printed in Vienna in 1779 or 1780)

Franz Giftschütz, Osnowa przepisanego w C. K. Dziedzicznych Państwach uczenia teologii Pastoralney (Lviv, 1787)

Kyrylo Studynsʹkyi, ed., Korespondetsiia Iakova Holovatsʹkoho v litakh 1835-1849 (Lviv, 1909)

Mykola Ustyianovych, Sleza na grobe Ego Vysokoprepodobie i Vsechestniishago Gospodina Mikhaila Barona ot Neustern Garasevicha (Lviv, 1836)

Augustin Zippe, Von der moralischen Bildung angehender Geistlicher in dem
Generalseminario in Prag
(Prague, 1784)